Hemorrhagic Stroke

Hemorrhagic Stroke – Causes, Types and Treatments

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What causes a Hemorrhagic Stroke?

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Hemorrhagic stroke is a form of brain stroke that is drastic. It can strike anyone at any time, and it is important that the public be aware of this dangerous condition. Information on strokes should always be focused on the risk factors, symptoms, causes, complications, diagnoses and treatment. This specific type of stroke affects the brain specifically.

A hemorrhagic stroke takes place when there is seepage of blood from the blood vessels or tissues. The seeping blood causes an irritation in the tissue of the brain. The blood gradually accumulates and will form a hematoma. Because the brain is not designed to include hematoma, pressure increases on the brain tissue which can cause lots of damage.

Depending on where the bleeding occurs, there are various types of hemorrhagic strokes. When the bleeding is inside the brain, it is called an intracerebral hemorrhage.
A stroke occurs when the blood vessels inside of the brain burst. The bleeding will cause damage in the surrounding brain tissue. The bleeding causes more pressure to the brain cells which results in damage.

High blood pressure is the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke. Another common cause is an aneurysm. In an aneurysm, it causes the walls of the blood vessels to become thin and eventually burst. Another reason one might have a stroke is due to a build-up of the protein amyloid inside the artery walls. This is more common in the elderly, and it makes their arteries more likely to bleed.

Nearly 20 percent of strokes are the hemorrhagic type of stroke. These can strike anyone at any age.

The symptoms seen with this type of stroke are the inability to move specific parts of the body, difficulty with speech, headaches, sudden dizziness, inability to recognize familiar people, loss of sensation or feeling and numbness in the body parts.

The hemorrhagic type of stroke is treated with medication or surgery. Depending on the severity of the stroke, treatment may include measures to save the person’s life and then repair the bleeding. Having surgery tends to quicken the process of recovery as well as helping reduce the brain damage caused by the stroke. No matter what treatment process a person chooses, a hemorrhagic type of stroke will require rigorous long-term treatment. Most people who suffer from this type of stroke need physical therapy, family counseling and other behavioral modifications.

When a person suffers this type of stroke, it is considered a true emergency. The stroke must be diagnosed immediately to determine the correct treatment process for the patient. This requires many examinations such as blood flow tests and electrical activity tests. During these conditions, complications can arise due to hypoxia such as high blood pressure, seizures and increased intracranial pressure. Treatments are very diverse and should be started immediately to avoid sudden death or fatal damage to the patient. Strokes can be very scary, and the sooner they are treated, the better off the patient will be.

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Types of Hemorrhagic Stroke?

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Stroke or also known as Cerebrovascular Accident is a medical condition where a person experiences a rapid loss of brain function. This condition deprives the brain from oxygen and nutrients, which will eventually lead to death of brain cells. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel of the brain leaks or ruptures. There are two major types of hemorrhagic stroke; intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both conditions need immediate medical attention and early treatment upon onset of symptoms.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

This type of hemorrhagic stroke is the accumulation of blood in the blood vessel. Because of too much pressure, the blood vessel breaks and spills into the surrounding area of the brain, damaging the brain cells. It usually occurs in people aging 60 and above, experiencing chronic high blood pressure. It accounts with higher percentage causing death and is more common than subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Causes

• Unattended high blood pressure
• Trauma
• Vascular Malfunction
• Blood –thinning medications

Signs and Symptoms

• Severe headache for the first minute
• Nausea and vomiting
• Possible seizure
• Loss of consciousness
• Paralysis on one side of the body
• Pupils are abnormally large or small

Prognosis

Prognosis is the outcome or possible outcome of the disease that occurs right after an attack. Intracerebral hemorrhage is considered much more fatal to the patient than any other types of stroke. He or she might not be able to survive and die after days of the attack especially in cases where the damage is large and catastrophic. But a few patients survive and recover their consciousness and possible brain functions. Paralysis would most likely be permanent.

Treatment

This may be done for life upon the recovery of the patient and may lessen the possibility for further brain damage.

• Intravenous administration of Vitamin K
• Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma to the blood
• Intravenous administration of synthetic product solution to the protein in the blood
• Surgical procedures to remove clot and pressure of the brain are rarely done because it causes more damage to the brain but could be life-saving and increase possibility of recovery.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

A life- threatening condition that results from an artery bursts or leaks on or near the surface of the brain, filling in the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and skull. It is only considered a stroke when it occurs spontaneously from a head injury. Bleeding is often sudden with severe headache. The pressure causes the blood vessel to experience vasospasm and may cause a second attack leading it to more damages. This type of stroke is more common in women than in men.

Causes

• Rupture of a weak blood vessel due to aging or congenital defects
• Severe head injuries

Signs and Symptoms

Aneurism usually causes no symptoms before rupturing, but it produces warning signs right after it bleeds.

• Thunderclap headache
• Facial or Eye pain
• Double vision
• Loss of peripheral vision
• Aphasia
• Paralysis on one side of the body

Prognosis

Patients may experience second attack and severe brain damage if surgical procedure of removing the clot may not be done. He or she may recover most or all of mental and physical functions after an attack. However they will still experience weakness, slight paralysis, and loss of sensation.

Treatment

• Early hospitalization
• Complete bed rest
• Opiod Analgesics
• Stool softeners to prevent pressure from constipation
• Calcium channel blockers for high blood pressure
• Surgical procedure to remove clot; shunts or plastic tubing may be attached to release extra blood or fluid that causes pressure to the brain.