Hemorrhagic Stroke

Hemorrhagic Stroke – Causes, Types and Treatments

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Types of Hemorrhagic Stroke?

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Stroke or also known as Cerebrovascular Accident is a medical condition where a person experiences a rapid loss of brain function. This condition deprives the brain from oxygen and nutrients, which will eventually lead to death of brain cells. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel of the brain leaks or ruptures. There are two major types of hemorrhagic stroke; intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both conditions need immediate medical attention and early treatment upon onset of symptoms.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

This type of hemorrhagic stroke is the accumulation of blood in the blood vessel. Because of too much pressure, the blood vessel breaks and spills into the surrounding area of the brain, damaging the brain cells. It usually occurs in people aging 60 and above, experiencing chronic high blood pressure. It accounts with higher percentage causing death and is more common than subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Causes

• Unattended high blood pressure
• Trauma
• Vascular Malfunction
• Blood –thinning medications

Signs and Symptoms

• Severe headache for the first minute
• Nausea and vomiting
• Possible seizure
• Loss of consciousness
• Paralysis on one side of the body
• Pupils are abnormally large or small

Prognosis

Prognosis is the outcome or possible outcome of the disease that occurs right after an attack. Intracerebral hemorrhage is considered much more fatal to the patient than any other types of stroke. He or she might not be able to survive and die after days of the attack especially in cases where the damage is large and catastrophic. But a few patients survive and recover their consciousness and possible brain functions. Paralysis would most likely be permanent.

Treatment

This may be done for life upon the recovery of the patient and may lessen the possibility for further brain damage.

• Intravenous administration of Vitamin K
• Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma to the blood
• Intravenous administration of synthetic product solution to the protein in the blood
• Surgical procedures to remove clot and pressure of the brain are rarely done because it causes more damage to the brain but could be life-saving and increase possibility of recovery.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

A life- threatening condition that results from an artery bursts or leaks on or near the surface of the brain, filling in the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and skull. It is only considered a stroke when it occurs spontaneously from a head injury. Bleeding is often sudden with severe headache. The pressure causes the blood vessel to experience vasospasm and may cause a second attack leading it to more damages. This type of stroke is more common in women than in men.

Causes

• Rupture of a weak blood vessel due to aging or congenital defects
• Severe head injuries

Signs and Symptoms

Aneurism usually causes no symptoms before rupturing, but it produces warning signs right after it bleeds.

• Thunderclap headache
• Facial or Eye pain
• Double vision
• Loss of peripheral vision
• Aphasia
• Paralysis on one side of the body

Prognosis

Patients may experience second attack and severe brain damage if surgical procedure of removing the clot may not be done. He or she may recover most or all of mental and physical functions after an attack. However they will still experience weakness, slight paralysis, and loss of sensation.

Treatment

• Early hospitalization
• Complete bed rest
• Opiod Analgesics
• Stool softeners to prevent pressure from constipation
• Calcium channel blockers for high blood pressure
• Surgical procedure to remove clot; shunts or plastic tubing may be attached to release extra blood or fluid that causes pressure to the brain.

Types of Hemorrhagic Stroke?